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What is Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD)?

Temporomandibular joint is a pair of hinge joint on each side of the jaw that connects mandible to the temporal bone of skull. It allows the up-down and side to side movement of the jaw for talking, chewing and yawning. Problems associated with the jaw or muscles controlling jaw movement are known as Temporomandibular Disorders. It can cause pain in the jaw joint and in the muscles that control jaw movement.

Causes of TMD
A variety of factors may contribute to the development of TMD:  

  • Injury to the jaw, the joint, or the muscles of head and neck
  • Excessive pressure on joint due to forceful grinding or clenching of teeth
  • Accidental movement of the disc between the joint
  • Various types of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
  • Stress that can lead to tightening of facial muscles or clenching of teeth (Mental Stress or Sleep   Apnoea)
  • Genetics
  • Single side chewing
  • Faulty Dental Treatments
  • Missing teeth
  • Impacted teeth
  • Malocclusion
  • Sleep Apnoea
  • Ascending causes like Cervical pain, Postural Imbalances

Signs and symptoms of TMD

  • Pain or tenderness in one or both of the jaw, in and around the ear, face, neck and shoulders, teeth or head
  • Clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the jaw joint while opening or closing mouth
  • Difficulty or pain while chewing, speaking or opening mouth
  • Locking of the jaw joint, making it difficult to open or close the mouth
  • Swelling on the affected side of face
  • Dizziness  
  • Hearing problem
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
  • Migraines or Headache
  • Jaw Pain
  • Facial Pain
  • Neck, shoulder and Postural Pain
  • Difficulty in Mouth Opening
  • Pain on Chewing
  • Pain behind the Eyes and in Teeth, Receding Gums
  • Numbness or Tingling in Extremities
  • Ear Aches
  • Sleep Apnea